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AERODYNE
Wingless Vertical Take-off Aircraft





Experimental study of the Aerodyne principle on behalf of the Federal German Ministry of Defence. According to A.M. Lippisch, an Aerodyne is a wingless, unmanned vertical take-off aircraft. Testing of the Aerodyne E1 experimental unit was completed successfully on 30 November 1972. An Aerodyne combines lift and propulsion generation in a single structural unit, the inner flow channel, which is an annular wing with a fan. Without any change in its configuration, the Aerodyne is capable of stable flight through the full range from hover to maximum speed.

Air is deflected by flaps at the end of the flow channel in order to supply the necessary lift and thrust. The performance in Flight is between that of an helicopter and that of a conventionl aircraft. Aerodyne will reach good flying performance both in fast flight and in hover. In forward flight, pitch and yaw control is by means of the control surfaces of a conventional tail unit at the end of the tail boom.

Application: unmanned reconnaissance flight - land and ship-based. The craft is remotely radio-controlled. First flight: 18 september 1972.

© DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG
Munich, Germany.







The Lippisch Aerodyne
By Dr. Alexander Martin Lippisch (1894 - 1976)



To generate lift and propulsion the Lippisch Aerodyne would utilize two co-axial propellers, diverting the slipstream downwards to achieve VTOL. Control would be achieved by deflecting part of the slipstream emerging from the tail boom and use of the propeller flaps. Despite provision for a cockpit, only unmanned craft were built and tested at Collins, operated by electric cables. Collins did mange to construct a full scale mock-up of the Aerodyne and Lippisch patented the concept in 1959.
In 1967, Dornier picked up the Lippisch Aerodyne concept with the intent on further development. Dr. Lippisch was brought on as chief consultant on the craft.
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SNECMA C450 Coléoptère





In France, the Société Nationale d'Etude et Construction de Moteurs d'Aviation (SNECMA) began working on a jet powered tail-sitter in 1954. Various rigs were tested from 1955-1957 powered by the 6,400 lb thrust Atar D jet engine, each with increasing complexity. The C450 Coléoptère ("annular wing") was the final step in the program. It had a 22 ft fuselage surrounded by a 10.5 ft diameter annular wing with four small fins above castoring wheels. The airframe was built by the Nord company. Control in hover was provided by tilting vanes in the nozzle of the 7,700 lb thrust Atar 101E turbojet. In forward flight the small fins deflected the air for control. Two small strakes in the nose could be extended to facilitate a pitch-up moment in transition back to vertical.
First tethered hover was on 17 April 1959; first free hover was on 3 May 1959, lasting for 3 1/2 minutes. The ninth flight was on 25 July 1959; it was to transition to about 36° from the vertical and then return to hover at 2,000 ft before beginning a vertical descent. However, the Coléoptère was unable to establish the hover and began descending faster than desired and fell into oscillations about all three axes. The pilot ejected at 150 ft but was badly hurt. The Coléoptère rotated to about 50° and accelerated horizontally, but did not quite complete the transition and crashed.

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ROTARY ROCKET
An Orbital Helicopter





ROTON is a single stage (SSTO) rocket system powered by a number of small liquid-propellant rocket engines attached to the tips of a large diameter rotor blades. Pumping pressure at the rotor tip is supplied by rotational forces of the rotor. At liftoff, the rocket engines are aligned parallel to the ground, with the rotor providing most of the liftoff thrust, while the rocket engines are operating at only a small fraction of their rated thrust. As the vehicle climbs, the engines are aligned with the flight directional axis of the vehicle, and remain in this position until orbital velocity is achieved. Upon re-entry, the rotor may provide both lifting and drag forces, and also permits low velocity, controllable approaches to the landing field. Landing is in a vertical orientation, the same as liftoff.
Roton was invented by Bevin McKinney









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