GRAVITY & MAGNETISM
There's clearly a connection between electricity and magnetism, but how about gravity and magnetism? Everything in this universe is part of this universe thus connected somehow, how in this case?
The thrust force we need for flying, and accelerate our stuff to distant places with: controlled gravity would be perfect. We can create a magnetic field with electricity. How can we create a gravitational field? With help of magnetism maybe? A lot of questionmarks.
What are gravity and magnetism?
I know that mass attracts mass, but I don't know why.
The forces can be calculated, but the origin is still unknown.
Gravity and magnetism are different, but there are similarities also.
Things aren't always what they seem to be.
Water is a fluid, and it's wet. That's how we experience it, from a human point of view. But when looking closely, we can see now that water is made of pretty solid atoms, and these atoms aren't wet. We usually don't know about the details, we only experience the group effect, how zillions of details act together.
We see hot and cold as opposites, but there is no cold really. If something has a temperature, it's always a positive value. And deeper; we call the average effect of many vibrating atoms "temperature". Temperature is not a primary basic element, it's yet another "illusion".
Light is invisible. It's the collision of light on your nerves that you can sense. The world we live in is, from a detail point of view, founded on illusions, seeing group effects and almost blind to the details that really make our word.
So, how about gravity? Very large amounts of atoms together, like the Earth, have a gravitational field, a relative weak force, that attracts the mass of other atoms. But what is really going on?
Complex things are a collection, made of a larger number of less complex things. Gravity as we know it, is probably a complex thing, no primary basic element. To learn more about gravity, we have to forget what we know from daily life, and zoom in on the situation. Force might be a primary basic element, but there's probably no "magnetic force" and "gravity force". When a yellow car hits a wall, there is force, but not "yellow car force".
A tree letting go of an apple; the apple accelerates to the Earth.
To accelerate an apple in space with a rocket costs energy. Does the Earth's gravitational field generate energy out of nothing? I don't think so. I think an apple closer to the ground contains less energy than an apple in a tree. The amount of energy that can come from dropping it is equal to the loss of energy. Similar to atoms coming together in a chemical reaction, making molecules and releasing energy.
Straight through mass
The force fields of gravity and magnetism can go straight through us, with only a little effect. Makes me wonder what more can go straight through us. Are there things that can go through us without any effect? If there are, it is impossible to sense them. Smart people concluded that atoms in our body are mostly "empty" space, leaving lots of room for stuff to travel through us, with no or hardly any interaction.
What can be observed: Gravity
- Mass has or causes a gravitational field in and around the space it's in.
- It costs no energy to maintain the force field.
- Gravity is a weak force, relative to other forces. It takes the mass of the whole earth to produce 1G on a small stone, while a simple string can carry that stone. The forces that keep molecules together are so much stronger than gravity.
- A planet has no gravity poles (like magnets have a north and south pole)
- The stronger the force of gravity in an area, the slower speed of time goes there.
- The gravitational field penetrates every known material. There is no known way to shield gravity. Although some have claimed a reduction of between 0.5 to 2% in weight, above fast rotating superconductors.
- Gravity can bend the path of light.
- A gravitational field reaches very far. No limit of distance is known.
What can be observed: Magnetism
- A permanent magnet uses no energy to maintain its force field.
- A flow of electrons creats a magnet field.
- A magnet has poles (north & south). A magnetic monopole is not know yet.
- An electro magnet uses energy to maintain its force field, unless it's a superconducting one (?).
- When shutting of the power to an electro magnet, the force field collapses, which produces an electric current while collapsing.
- Even atoms have tiny magnetic fields.
- A permanent magnet can be made by aligning the spin of hot atoms, in a magnet field, and then freezing their positions, by cooling.
- Not all atoms are attracted a magnetic force field.
Part of the energetic system of an atom, are one or more electrons. Electrons can be on their own also. A stream of electrons we call an electric current. When an electric current flows, it creates a magnetic field. This is easy to prove with a compass (that contains a permanent magnet)
As long as the current flows, there is a magnetic field. Less people know that it costs energy to create a magnetic field, and that when turning of the power, the field collapses and produces power.
Through superconducting materials, electrons can flow without resistance. Superconducting material has no interior magnetic field; the Meissner effect is the expulsion of a magnetic field from a superconductor during its transition to the superconducting state. No magnetic field inside.
- How is gravity like in the center of the earth?
- Is the speed of gravity equal to the speed of light?
- Is there a treshold, a distance after which there is no effect?
- Is there a minimum or maximum to the force of gravity?
Gravity shielding, Non-mainstream views (source wikipedia)
The consensus view of the scientific community is that gravitational shielding does not exist, but there have been occasional investigations into this topic, such the 1999 NASA-funded paper by Li, et al. See also the writings of the Russian advocate of "anti-gravity", Podkletnov. While experimenting with rotating superconductors he noticed that pipe smoke from a nearby researcher appeared to be collecting in a column above his apparatus. He then devised an experiment in which he magnetically levitated a superconducting rotating disc, and he reported that objects held above the rotating disc underwent a reduction of between 0.5 to 2% in weight. Analyses of Podkletnov's observations by Giovanni Modanese and Ning Wu indicated various applications of quantum gravity theory could allow gravitational shielding phenomena. Podkletnov's findings have yet to be replicated or verified through independent experimental data.
A brief summery of history
Sir Isacc Newton published his "Principia Mathematica" that described "the fundamentals of nature" being: time, space, and motion. The equations by which the motion of planets could be predicted in their orbits through the solar system. His view on universe was a fixed and stable one. Space was unbending and unyielding, and time was equally absolute, ticking away at the same rate for everyone, everywhere in the Universe. It didn't cover electricity and magnetism though, and although it described gravity really well, he (and everybody else) didn't know what gravity actually was.
Benjamin Franklin experimented with electricity, flying his kite into an electrical storm to capture the disccharge from a bolt of lightning.
Hans Christian Oersted noticed in that a compass needle would be deflected whenever it was held in close proximity to an electrified wire.
Michael Faraday demonstrated the reverse of Oersted’s discovery; he demonstrated the principal of induction, in which a magnet would produce electrical current in a wire.
James Clerk Maxwell determined that electricity and magnetism were manifestations of a single fundamental natural force called “electromagnetism”. He produced a set of equations, defining the relationship between electricity and magnetism. He also proposed that waves of electromagnetic energy could travel through space at the speed of light, and that light is a form of electromagnetic radiation.
J. J. Thompson discovered the electron, a sub-atomic particle that is orbiting arround the nucleus of atoms, and that it was carried a negative electrical charge
Max Planck proposed that “matter absorbed heat energy and emitted light energy discontinuously, in ‘lumps’.” Lumps became to be known as “quanta”, and with this discovery the foundation was laid for quantum mechanics.
Albert Einstein published four papers:
1) A dissertation on the photo-electric effect the phenomenon by which certain metals will emit electrons when their surface is struck by light.
2) A discussion of “Brownian movements”, about the behavior of atoms in certain specialized circumstances, and actually offered a measure of proof of the existence of atoms.
3) A paper entitled "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies", Today know as “Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity”.
It blended Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetism with the Newtonian equations for mechanics, but it also took both into an entirely new realm, by contemplating the kinds of things that would happen at velocities approaching the speed of light.
4) A paper entitled "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?", introduced the famous equation; E=mc2
Einstein's four papers introduced new theories of time and space, defined the relationship between mass and energy and reconciled it all with the commonly accepted theories of electromagnetism. But there was no discussion of gravity.
Robert Andrews Millikan published the results of his "oil-drop experiments" with which he calculating the charge of a single electron down to a constant value of about 1.602x10-19 coulomb.
Albert Einstein published his theory of General Relativity "The Foundations of the General Theory of Relativity". He described gravity as a curvature in the space-time continuum, a distortion of the fabric of space caused by the presence of a massive object like a planet or a star. A universe where space could be curved and distorted, and time was elastic.
Sir Arthur Eddington confirmed Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity. On an island off the coast of Africa, He observed a solar eclipse and concluded that the Sun indeed caused the light of distant stars to bend as it approached the Earth.
Albert Einstein published the first in a series of papers “Unified Field Theory.” Goal: to express both gravity and electromagnetism in one all-encompassing mathematical formula. This search would ultimately dominate the remainder of his life.